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استاندارد ASTM D 1037 – 99 (بخش اول)Standard Test Methods for Evaluating Properties of Wood-Base Fiber and Particle Panel Materials
This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 1037; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.
The test methods presented herein have been developed and are presented to serve two distinct
purposes. They are divided into two parts, Parts A and B, depending on the purpose for which they
are intended. The choice between a particular test method and its alternative should be made with a
full understanding of the intended purpose of each, because values obtained from tests may, in some
cases, differ. Of the test methods presented in both parts, some have been in generally accepted use
for many years, some are modifications and refinements of previously developed test methods, and
some are more recent developments. Where test methods are suitable for more than one of the
purposes, they are delineated in Part A, but not repeated in Part B. It is the intent that reference to the
appropriate section of the test method shall suffice in specifications developed for the different
Part A. General Test Methods for Evaluating the Basic Properties of Wood-Base Fiber and Particle
Panel Materials—Part A is for use in obtaining basic properties suitable for comparison studies with
other materials of construction. These refined test methods are applicable for this purpose to all
materials covered by Definitions D 1554.
Part B. Acceptance and Specification Test Methods for Hardboard—Part B is for specific use in
specifications for procurement and acceptance testing of hardboard. These test methods are generally
employed for those purposes in the industry. By confining their intended use as indicated, it has been
possible to achieve adequate precision of results combined with economy and speed in testing, which
are desirable for specification use.
PART A—GENERAL TEST METHODS FOR EVALUATING THE BASIC PROPERTIES OF WOOD-BASE
FIBER AND PARTICLE PANEL MATERIALS
1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the
properties of wood-base fiber and particle panel materials as
Size and Appearance of Boards 7-10
Strength Properties: Static Bending 11-20
Tensile Strength Parallel to Surface 21-27
Tensile Strength Perpendicular to Surface 28-33
Compression Strength Parallel to Surface 34-40
Fastener Holding Tests:
Lateral Nail Resistance Test 41-46
Nail Withdrawal Test 47-53
Nail-Head Pull-Through Test 54-60
Direct Screw Withdrawal Test 61-67
Hardness Test 68-73
Hardness Modulus Test 74-80
Shear Strength in the Plane of the Board 81-86
Glue-Line Shear Test (Block Type) 87-90
Falling Ball Impact Test 91-95
Abrasion Resistance by the U.S. Navy Wear Tester 96-99
Water Absorption and Thickness Swelling
Linear Variation with Change in
Moisture Content 108-111
Accelerated Aging 112-118
Cupping and Twisting 119
Moisture Content and Specific Gravity 120–121
Interlaminar Shear 122-129
Edgewise Shear 130-136
1 These test methods are under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D-7 on
Wood and are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D07.03 on Panel Products.
Current edition approved April 10, 1999. Published July 1999. Originally
published as D 1037 – 49. Last previous edition D 1037 – 96a.
Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.
Compression-Shear Test 137-146
1.2 There are accepted basic test procedures for various
fundamental properties of materials that may be used without
modification for evaluating certain properties of wood-based
fiber and particle panel materials. These test methods are
included elsewhere in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards.
The pertinent ones are listed in Table 1. A few of the test
methods referenced are for construction where the wood-base
materials often are used.
1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded
as the standard. The metric equivalents of inch-pound units
may be approximate.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the
safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate
safety and health practices and determine the applicability
of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1 ASTM Standards:
C 273 Test Method for Shear Test in Flatwise Plane of Flat
Sandwich Constructions or Sandwich Cores2
D 143 Methods of Testing Small Clear Specimens of Timber3
D 905 Test Method for Strength Properties of Adhesive
Bonds in Shear by Compression Loading4
D 1554 Definitions of Terms Relating to Wood-Base Fiber
and Particle Panel Materials3
D 3501 Methods of Testing Plywood in Compression3
3. Significance and Use
3.1 These test methods cover small-specimen tests for
wood-base fiber and particle panel materials that are made to
3.1.1 Data for comparing the mechanical and physical
properties of various materials,
3.1.2 Data for determining the influence on the basic properties
of such factors as raw material and processing variables,
post-treatments of panels, and environmental influences, and
3.1.3 Data for manufacturing control, product research and
development, and specification acceptance.
4. Selection of Test Method
4.1 Not all the tests outlined in these test methods may be
necessary to evaluate any particular board for any specified
use. In each instance, therefore, it will be necessary to
determine which tests shall be made.
5. Test Specimens
5.1 The number of specimens to be chosen for test and the
method of their selection depend on the purpose of the
particular tests under consideration, so that no general rule can
be given to cover all instances. It is recommended that
whenever possible, a sufficient number of tests be made to
permit statistical treatment of the test data. In the evaluation of
a board material, specimens for test should be obtained from a
representative number of boards. In properties reflecting differences
due to the machine direction of the board, specimens
from each board shall be selected both with the long dimension
parallel to the long dimension of the sheet, and with the long
dimension perpendicular to the long dimension of the sheet.
6. Control of Moisture Content and Temperature
6.1 The physical and mechanical properties of building
boards depend on the moisture content at time of test. Therefore,
material for test in the dry condition shall be conditioned
to constant weight and moisture content in a conditioning
chamber maintained at a relative humidity of 65 6 1 % and a
temperature of 20 6 3°C (68 6 6°F) (Note 1 and Note 2). If
there is any departure from this recommended condition, it
shall be so stated in this report.
NOTE 1—In following the recommendation that the temperature be
controlled to 20 6 3°C (68 6 6°F), it should be understood that it is
desirable to maintain the temperature as nearly constant as possible at
some temperature within this range.
2 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 15.03.
3 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 04.10.
4 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 15.06.
TABLE 1 Basic Test Procedures for Evaluating Properties of
Wood Base-Fiber and Particle Panel Materials
Test Methods for
C 177 Steady-State Heat-Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission
Properties by Means of the Guarded-Hot-Plate ApparatusA
C 209 Cellulosic Fiber Insulating BoardA
C 236 Steady-State Thermal Performance of Building Assemblies by
Means of the Guarded Hot BoxA
C 384 Impedance and Absorption of Acoustical Materials by the Impedance
C 423 Sound Absorption and Sound Absorption Coefficients by the Reverberation
D 149 Dielectric Breakdown Voltage and Dielectric Strength of Solid Electrical
Insulating Materials at Commercial Power FrequenciesB
D 150 A-C Loss Characteristics and Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of
Solid Electrical Insulating MaterialsB
D 257 D-C Resistance or Conductance of Insulating MaterialsB
D 495 High-Voltage, Low-Current, Dry Arc Resistance of Solid Electrical
D 1666 Conducting Machining Tests of Wood and Wood-Base MaterialsC
D 1761 Mechanical Fasteners in WoodC
E 72 Conducting Strength Tests of Panels for Building ConstructionD
E 84 Surface Burning Characteristics of Building MaterialsD
E 90 Laboratory Measurement of Airborne Sound Transmission Loss of
E 96 Water Vapor Transmission of MaterialsA
E 97 Directional Reflectance Factor, 45-deg 0-deg, of Opaque
Specimens by Broad-Band Filter ReflectometryE
E 119 Fire Tests of Building Construction and MaterialsD
E 136 Behavior of Materials in a Vertical Tube Furnace at 750°CD
E 152 Fire Tests of Door AssembliesD
E 162 Surface Flammability of Materials Using a Radiant Heat Energy
E 661 Performance of Wood and Wood-Based Floor and Roof Sheathing
Under Concentrated Static and Impact LoadsD
E 662 Specific Optical Density of Smoke Generated by Solid MaterialsD
E 906 Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and ProductsD
AAnnual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 04.06.
BAnnual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 10.01.
CAnnual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 04.10.
DAnnual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 04.07.
EAnnual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 14.02.
NOTE 2—Requirements for relative humidity vary for different materials.
The condition given above meets the standard for wood and
SIZE AND APPEARANCE OF BOARDS
7. Size of Finished Boards
7.1 When measurements of finished boards are required, the
width of each finished board shall be obtained by measuring
the width at each end and at midlength to an accuracy of not
less than 60.3 % or 1⁄16 in. (2 mm), whichever is smaller.
Likewise, three measurements of length shall be made, one
near each edge, and one at midwidth with like accuracy.
8. Variation in Thickness
8.1 For the determination of variations in thickness, specimens
at least 6-in. (150-mm) square shall be used. The
thickness of each specimen shall be measured at five points,
near each corner and near the center, and the average thickness
and the variation in thickness noted. These measurements shall
be made to an accuracy of not less than 60.3 %, when
9. Specific Gravity
9.1 Specific gravity (or density) and moisture content determinations
are required on each static bending test specimen.
The moisture content shall be determined from a coupon taken
from each bending specimen, and the specific gravity computed
from the dimensions and weight of the bending specimen
at time of test and the moisture content. The average specific
gravity of the bending specimens as determined after conditioning
to equilibrium (Section 6) shall be reported as the
specific gravity of the board. The maximum and minimum
values for specific gravity (based on volume at test and weight
when oven–dry) shall also be noted.
NOTE 3—When it is desired to make specific gravity determinations
independent of any other test, specimens of any convenient size may be
selected. These shall be measured, weighed, and dried as outlined in
Sections 127 and 128.
10. Surface Finish
10.1 The finish of both surfaces shall be described. A
photograph of each surface may be taken to show the texture of
the board. This photograph shall show suitable numbering so
that the building board may be properly identified.
11.1 Static bending tests shall be made both on specimens
when conditioned and when soaked. One half of the test
specimens shall be prepared with the long dimension parallel
and the other half with the long dimension perpendicular to the
long dimension of the board in order to evaluate directional
12. Test Specimen
12.1 Each test specimen shall be 3 in. (76 mm) in width if
the nominal thickness is greater than 1⁄4 in. (6 mm), and 2 in.
(50 mm) in width if the nominal thickness is 1⁄4 in. or less. The
depth (thickness) shall be the thickness of the material. The
length of each specimen shall be 2 in. (50 mm) plus 24 times
the nominal depth (Note 4 and Note 5). The width, length, and
thickness of each specimen shall be measured to an accuracy of
not less than 60.3 %.
NOTE 4—In cutting specimens to meet the length requirements of 2 in.
(50 mm) plus 24 times the nominal thickness, it is not intended that the
length be changed for small variations in thickness. Rather it is the thought
that the nominal thickness of the board under test should be used for
determining the specimen length.
NOTE 5—Long-span specimens are desired for tests in bending so that
the effects of deflections due to shear deformations will be minimized and
the values of moduli of elasticity obtained from the bending tests will
approximate the true moduli of the materials.
13. Specimens Soaked Before Test
13.1 The specimens to be tested in the soaked condition
shall be submerged in water at 20 6 3°C (68 6 6°F) for 24 h
before the test and shall be tested immediately upon removal
from the water. When it is desired to obtain the effect of
complete saturation the specimens shall be soaked for such
longer period as may be necessary. The time of soaking and the
amount of water absorbed shall be reported.
14. Span and Supports
14.1 The span for each test shall be 24 times the nominal
thickness (depth) of the specimen (Note 6). The supports shall
be such that no appreciable crushing of the specimen will occur
at these points during the test. The supports either shall be
rounded or shall be knife edges provided with rollers and plates
under the specimen at these points. When rounded supports,
such as those shown in Fig. 1, are used, the radius of the
rounded portion shall be at least 11⁄2 times the thickness of the
material being tested. If the material under test deviates from a
plane (Note 7), laterally adjustable supports5 shall be provided.
NOTE 6—Establishment of a span-depth ratio is required to allow an
accurate comparison of test values for materials of different thicknesses. It
should be noted that the span is based on the nominal thickness of the
material and it is not intended that the spans be changed for small
variations in thickness.
NOTE 7—The laterally adjustable knife edges may be necessary for the
specimens tested in the soaked condition because of warping or twisting
that may occur due to soaking.
15. Center Loading
15.1 The specimens shall be loaded at the center of span
with the load applied to the finished face at a uniform rate
through a loading block rounded as is shown in Fig. 1. The
bearing blocks shall be at least 3 in. (76 mm) in width and shall
have a thickness (parallel to span) equal to twice the radius of
curvature of the rounded portion of the loading block. The
radius of the rounded portion shall be approximately equal to
11⁄2 times the thickness of the specimen.
16. Speed of Testing
16.1 Apply the load continuously throughout the test at a
uniform rate of motion of the movable crosshead of the testing
machine calculated as follows (Note 8 and Note 9):
5 Details of laterally adjustable supports may be found in Fig. 1 of Methods
N 5 zL2 /6d (1)
N = rate of motion of moving head, in./min (mm/min),
z = unit rate of fiber strain, in./in. (mm/mm) of outer fiber
length per minute (0.005),
L = span, in. (mm), and
d = depth (thickness) of specimen, in. (mm).
NOTE 8—The testing machine speed used shall not vary by more than
650 % from that specified for a given test. The testing machine speed
used shall be recorded on the data sheet. The crossheaded speed shall
mean the free-running, or no-load, crosshead speed for testing machines of
the mechanical-drive type, and the loaded crosshead speed for testing
machines of the hydraulic-loading type.
NOTE 9—The calculated rates of head descent are, therefore, 0.12
in./min (3 mm/min) for specimens 1⁄4in. (6 mm) in thickness, 0.24 in./min
(6 mm/min) for specimens 1⁄2 in. (12 mm) in thickness, 0.36 in./min (9
mm/min) for specimens 3⁄4 in. (18 mm) in thickness and 0.48 in./min (12
mm/min) for specimens 1 in. (25 mm) in thickness.
17. Load-Deflection Curves
17.1 Obtain load-deflection curves to maximum load for all
bending tests. Obtain the deflection of the center of the
specimen by measuring the deflection of the bottom of the
specimen at the center by means of an indicating dial (Note 10)
attached to the base of the testing jig, with the dial plunger in
contact with the bottom of the specimen at the center. This
arrangement is shown in Fig. 1. Note the load and deflection at
first failure and at maximum load. Take readings of deflection
at least to the nearest 0.005 in. (0.10 mm). Fig. 2 shows a
typical load-deflection curve. Deflections also may be measured
with transducer-type gages and plotted simultaneously
NOTE 10—The range of standard 0.001-in. (0.02-mm) indicating dials
is 1 in. (25 mm). The total deflection of some thicknesses of boards may
exceed 1 in. at failure. When this happens, either a 2-in. (50-mm)
total-travel indicating dial or a suitable 2:1 reducing lever in conjunction
with a 1-in. travel dial should be used so that maximum deflections can be
18. Description of Failure
18.1 Note the character of the failure. The report shall
include the sequence of failure and note whether or not the
initial failure was in compression or tension. Photographs of
typical failures will be helpful.
FIG. 1 Static Bending Test Assembly
in. 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
mm 5 10 15 20 25
lb 4 8 12 16 20 24 28
kg 1.8 3.6 5.4 7.2 9 10.8 12.6
FIG. 2 Typical Load-Deflection Curve for Static Bending Test
19. Moisture Content and Specific Gravity
19.1 Weigh the specimen immediately before the test, and
after the test cut a moisture 1 in. (25 mm) by the width of
specimen from the body of the specimen. Determine the
moisture content and specific gravity of each specimen in
accordance with Sections 9, 127, and 128.
20. Calculation and Report
20.1 Calculate the modulus of rupture for each specimen by
the following equation, and include the values determined in
R 5 3PL/2bd2 (2)
20.2 Calculate the stress at proportional limit for each
specimen by the following equation, and include the values
determined in the report:
Spl 5 3P1L/2bd2 (3)
20.3 Calculate the stiffness (apparent modulus of elasticity)
for each specimen by the following equation, and include the
values determined in the report:
E 5 P1L3/4bd3y1 (4)
20.4 Calculate the work-to-maximum load for each specimen
by the following equation, and include the values determined
in the report:
Wml 5 A/bdL (5)
A = area under load-deflection curve to maximum load,
b = width of specimen, in. (mm),
d = thickness (depth) of specimen, in. (mm),
E = stiffness (apparent modulus of elasticity), psi
L = length of span, in. (mm),
P = maximum load, lbf (N),
P1 = load at proportional limit, lbf (N),
R = modulus of rupture, psi (kPa),
Spl = stress at proportional limit, psi (kPa),
Wml = work to maximum load, lbf·in./in.3(N·mm/mm3),
y1 = center deflection at proportional limit load, in.
TENSILE STRENGTH PARALLEL TO SURFACE
21.1 The test for tensile strength parallel to the surface shall
be made on specimens both in the dry and in the soaked
condition. Tests shall be made on specimens both with the long
dimension parallel and perpendicular to the long dimension of
the board to determine whether or not the material has
NOTE 11—This test may be applied to material 1 in. (25 mm) or less in
thickness. When the materials exceed 1 in. in thickness, crushing at the
grips during test is likely to adversely affect the test values obtained. It is
recommended that for material greater than 1 in. in thickness, the material
be resawed to 1⁄2 in. (12 mm) thickness. Test values obtained from resawed
specimens may be only approximate, because strengths of material near
the surface may vary from the remainder.
22. Test Specimen
22.1 Each test specimen shall be prepared as shown in Fig.
3. The reduced section shall be cut to the size shown with a
band saw. The thickness and the minimum width of each
specimen at the reduced section shall be measured to an
accuracy of not less than 60.3 %. The minimum width of the
reduced section shall be determined to at least the nearest 0.01
in. (0.25 mm). These two dimensions shall be used to determine
the net cross-sectional area for determining maximum
23. Specimens Soaked Before Test
23.1 Specimens to be tested in the soaked condition shall be
prepared in accordance with Section 13.
24. Method of Loading
24.1 Use self-aligning, self-tightening grips with serrated
gripping surfaces at least 2 in. (50 mm) in width and at least 2
in. in length to transmit the load from the testing machine to the
specimen. Fig. 4 shows a typical assembly for the tension test
of building boards.
25. Speed of Testing
25.1 Apply the load continuously throughout the test at a
uniform rate of motion of the movable crosshead of the testing
machine of 0.15 in./min (4 mm/min) (see Note 8).
in. 1⁄4 1 11⁄4 11⁄2 2 23⁄4 3 10
mm 6 25.4 32 38 51 70 76 254
FIG. 3 Detail of Specimen for Tension Test Parallel to Surface
26. Test Data and Report
26.1 Obtain maximum loads from which calculate the
stress. If the failure is within 1⁄2 in. (12 mm) of either grip,
disregard the test value. The report shall include maximum
loads and the location and description of the failures.
27. Moisture Content
27.1 Determine the moisture content of each specimen as
specified in Sections 9, 14 and 15.
TENSILE STRENGTH PERPENDICULAR TO
28.1 The test for tensile strength perpendicular to the
surface shall be made on specimens in the dry condition to
determine cohesion of the fiberboard in the direction perpendicular
to the plane of the board.
NOTE 12—This test is included because of the increased use of
fiberboards, hardboards, and particle boards where wood, plywood, or
other materials are glued to the board, or where the internal bond strength
of the board is an important property. Tests in the soaked condition shall
be made if the material is to be used under severe conditions.
29. Test Specimen
29.1 The test specimen shall be 2-in. (50-mm) square and
the thickness shall be that of the finished board. Loading blocks
of steel or aluminum alloy 2-in. square and 1 in. (25 mm) in
thickness shall be effectively bonded with a suitable adhesive
(Note 13) to the 2-in. square faces of the specimen as shown in
Fig. 5, which is a detail of the specimen and loading fixtures.
Cross-sectional dimensions of the specimen shall be measured
to an accuracy of not less than 60.3 %. The maximum distance
from the center of the universal joint or self-aligning head to
the glued surface of the specimen shall be 3 in. (76 mm).
NOTE 13—Any suitable adhesive that provides an adequate bond may
be used for bonding the specimen to the loading blocks. Epoxy resins are
recommended as a satisfactory bonding agent. The pressure required to
bond the blocks to the specimen will depend on the density of the board
and the adhesive used, and should not be so great as to measurably
damage the specimen. The resulting bond shall be at least as strong as the
cohesive strength of the material perpendicular to the plane of the panel.
FIG. 4 Assembly for Tension Test Parallel to Surface
in. 1⁄4 5⁄16 3⁄8 7⁄16 1⁄2 3⁄4 11⁄4 19⁄16 2 21⁄16 29⁄16
mm 6 7.5 9 10.5 12.7 19 31.7 39 51 52 64.3
FIG. 5 Detail of Specimen and Loading Fixture for Tension Test Perpendicular to Surface
30.1 Engage the loading fixtures, such as are shown in Fig.
5, attached to the heads of the testing machine, with the blocks
attached to the specimen. Stress the specimen by separation of
the heads of the testing machine until failure occurs. The
direction of loading shall be as nearly perpendicular to the
faces of the specimen as possible, and the center of load shall
pass through the center of the specimen.
31. Speed of Testing
31.1 Apply the load continuously throughout the test at a
uniform rate of motion of the movable crosshead of the testing
machine 0.08 in./in. (cm/cm) of thickness per min.
NOTE 14—It is not intended that the testing machine speed shall be
varied for small differences in fiberboard thickness, but rather that it shall
not vary more than 650 % from that specified above (see Note 8).
32. Test Data and Report
32.1 Obtain maximum loads from which calculate the stress
at failure. Calculate strength values in pounds per square inch
(kilopascals), for which the measured dimensions of the
specimen shall be used. Include the location of the line of
failure in the report.
33. Moisture Content
33.1 Determine the moisture content of each specimen on a
separate sample prepared from the same material, as specified
in Sections 127 and 128.
COMPRESSION STRENGTH PARALLEL TO
34.1 The test for compression strength parallel to the
surface shall be made on specimens both in the dry and in the
soaked condition. Tests shall be made of specimens both with
the load applied parallel and perpendicular to the long dimension
of the board to determine whether or not the material has
34.2 Because of the large variation in character of woodbase
fiber and particle panel materials and the differences in
manufactured thicknesses, one procedure is not applicable for
all materials. One of the three procedures detailed as follows
shall be used depending on the character and thickness of the
board being evaluated:
34.2.1 Procedure A (Laminated Specimen), shall be used for
materials 3⁄8 in. (10 mm) or more but less than 1 in. (25 mm)
in nominal thickness, particularly when modulus of elasticity
and stress at proportional limit are required. In this procedure
when materials less than 1 in. in thickness are evaluated, two
or three thicknesses shall be laminated to provide a nominal
thickness of at least 1 in. but no amount more than that amount
than necessary. The nominal size of the specimen shall be 1 by
4 in. (25 by 101 mm) (with the 4-in. dimension parallel to the
applied force) by the thickness as laminated.
34.2.2 Procedure B (Lateral Support), shall be used for
materials less than 3⁄8 in. in thickness, particularly when
modulus of elasticity and stress at proportional limit are
required. Specimens shall be 1 by 4 in. by the thickness as
manufactured and evaluations made in a suitable lateral support
device. The 4-in. long dimensions shall be parallel to the
34.2.3 Procedure C (Short Column), shall be used when
maximum crushing strength only is required or where the
thickness of the board material is 1 in. or more and either
maximum crushing strength modulus of elasticity, and stress at
proportional limit or only maximum crushing strength is
required. When the material being evaluated is 1 in. or less in
thickness, the width of the specimen shall be 1 in., the
thickness shall be as manufactured, and the length (height as
tested) shall be four times the thickness. When the material
being evaluated is more than 1 in. in thickness, the width shall
be equal to the nominal thickness and the length (height as
loaded) shall be four times the nominal thickness.
35. Test Specimen
35.1 The test specimens shall be carefully sawed with
surfaces smooth and planes at right angles to the faces of the
boards as manufactured. For the laminated specimens (Procedure
A), pieces of board at least 1 in. (25 mm) larger in length
and width than the finished size of specimen shall be laminated
using thin spreads of epoxy resin or other adhesive that does
not contain water or other swelling agent (Note 15). Pressures
shall not exceed 50 psi (343.2 kPa). Specimens shall be sawed
from the laminated pieces after at least 8 h of curing of the
resin at room temperature. The width and thickness shall be
measured to at least the nearest 0.001 in. (0.025 mm). These
two dimensions shall be used to calculate net cross-sectional
area for modulus of elasticity, and stress at proportional limit
and maximum load.
NOTE 15—An adhesive that contains water or other swelling agent
might produce initial stresses adjacent to the glue lines.
36. Specimens Soaked Before Test
36.1 Specimens to be tested in the soaked condition shall be
prepared in accordance with Section 13.
37.1 Load the specimens through a spherical loading block,
preferably of the suspended self-aligning type. Center them
carefully in the testing machine in a vertical plane as shown in
Fig. 6 (unsupported 4-in. (101-mm specimen)) and Fig. 7
(laterally supported pack device).6 Apply loading at a uniform
rate of head travel of the testing machine of 0.005 in. (0.12
mm)/in. of length/min.
NOTE 16—Speed of test therefore for the 4-in. specimen of Test
MethodsAand B shall be 0.020 in./min (see Note 8 for permitted variation
in testing speed).
38. Load-Deformation Curves
38.1 When required, obtain load-deformation curves for the
full duration of each test. Fig. 6 shows a Lamb’s Roller
Compressometer on an unsupported specimen. Fig. 7 shows a
6 The lateral support device is detailed in Fig. 2 of Methods D 3501.
Marten’s Mirror Compressometer on a laterally supported
specimen. Use these or equally accurate instruments for
measuring deformation. Choose increments in loading so that
not less than 12 and preferably at least 15 readings are obtained
before proportional limit. Read deformation to the nearest
0.0001 in. (0.002 mm). Attach compressometers over the
central portion of the length; points of attachment (gage points)
shall be at least 1 in. (25 mm) from the ends of specimens.
39. Moisture Content and Specific Gravity
39.1 Use the entire compression parallel to surface specimen
for moisture content determination except when the
capacity of the drying oven is too small for convenient drying
of the number of specimens being evaluated, when it will be
permissible to dry short lengths. Weigh the specimen immediately
before test and determine the moisture content and
specific gravity for each specimen in accordance with Section
40. Calculation and Report
40.1 The report shall indicate which procedure (laminated,
laterally supported, or short column) was used. Calculate the
values of modulus of elasticity, stress at proportional limit, and
maximum crushing strength by using the measured crosssectional
dimensions of each specimen. Describe the type of
LATERAL NAIL RESISTANCE TEST
41.1 Nail-holding tests shall be made to measure the resistance
of a nail to lateral movement through a board. One half
of the specimens shall be selected and positioned in test so that
the movement of the nail will be perpendicular to the long
dimension of the board for evaluation of directional properties.
When general information is desired the sixpenny common nail
or its equivalent should be used. For special applications,
however, this procedure is adaptable to other sizes and types of
NOTE 17—If this test is performed on some boards, the nail may bend
and pull out of the stirrup. If this happens, the maximum load will be an
apparent and not the true resistance of the board, and will only indicate
that the resistance is some figure higher than the apparent value. When this
happens it shall be noted.
NOTE 18—Values obtained from this test are dependent on the thickness
of the specimen. Values, however, are not directly proportional to the
thickness. For this reason values obtained from tests of different boards
can only be compared exactly if the thicknesses are equal.
42. Test Specimen
42.1 Each specimen shall be 3 in. (76 mm) in width and of
convenient length, and shall have a nail 0.113 in. (2.80 mm) in
diameter (or as near thereto as possible) (Note 19) driven at
right angles to the face of the board so that about an equal
length of nail projects from each face. The nail shall be
centered on the width and located 1⁄4, 3⁄8, 1⁄y___2, or 3⁄4 in. (6, 9, 12,
or 18 mm) (Note 20) from one end. Tests shall be made for all
three edge distances for each material tested. The thickness of
each specimen shall be measured to an accuracy of not less
than 60.3 %.
NOTE 19—A sixpenny common wire nail meets this requirement. In
certain instances it may be more desirable to use a pointed steel pin of
known hardness than the nail. The type of nail or pin used shall be
described in the report.
NOTE 20—The edge distance is the distance from the center of the nail
or other fastener to the edge of the board.
43. Specimens Soaked Before Test
43.1 Specimens to be tested in the soaked condition shall be
prepared in accordance with Section 13, and the nails shall be
driven before the specimens are soaked.
44. Method of Loading
44.1 Clamp the end of the specimen opposite to the end with
the nail in a position parallel to the movement of the testing
machine. Grip such as are suitable for tension tests parallel to
the plane of the board are suitable. Engage the nail by the
stirrup, and connect in turn to one platen of the testing machine
by a rod. A typical test assembly for measuring the resistance
of a nail in the lateral direction is shown in Fig. 8. The stirrup
and connections are detailed in Fig. 9. For other types of
fasteners, such as staples, modification of the stirrup may be
FIG. 6 Assembly for Compression Parallel to Surface Test of
FIG. 7 Assembly for Compression Parallel to Surface Test of a
Laterally Supported Specimen
45. Speed of Testing
45.1 Load the specimen continuously throughout the test by
separation of the heads of the testing machine at a uniform rate
of crosshead speed of 0.25 in./min (6 mm/min) (see Note 8).
46. Test Data and Report
46.1 The load required to move the nail to the edge of the
specimen shall be the measure of the lateral resistance. The
maximum load and the nature of failure shall be included in the
NAIL WITHDRAWAL TEST
47.1 Nail-holding tests shall be made on nails driven
through the specimen from face to face to measure the
resistance to withdrawal in a plane normal to the face. When
general information is desired the sixpenny common nail or its
equivalent should be used. For special applications, however,
this procedure is adaptable to other sizes and types of fasteners.
48. Test Specimen
48.1 The test specimen shall be of convenient size (at least
3 in. (76 mm) in width and 6 in. (152 mm) in length). Nails
0.113 in. (2.80 mm) in diameter shall be driven through the
board at right angles to the face, and at least 1⁄2 in. (12 mm) of
the shank portion shall project above the surface of the
material. The thickness of each specimen shall be measured to
an accuracy of not less than 60.3 %.
NOTE 21—A sixpenny common wire nail meets this requirement. In
certain instances it may be more desirable to use a pointed steel pin of
known hardness than the nail. A head or other suitable end shall then be
provided to engage the load-applying fixture and the nail or pin used shall
be described in the report.
NOTE 22—Where the use of a particular nail or fastener requires less
than 1⁄2 in. of shank projecting above the surface, then only sufficient
length shall be left to permit engagement in the testing assembly.
49. Specimens Tested in the Dry Condition
49.1 When the tests are made in the dry state, the withdrawals
shall be made immediately after the nails have been driven.
50. Specimens Soaked Before Test
50.1 Specimens to be tested in the soaked conditions shall
be prepared in accordance with Section 13, and the nails shall
be driven before the specimens are soaked.
51. Method of Loading
51.1 The assembly for the direct-withdrawal test is shown in
Fig. 10. Attach the specimen-holding fixture to the lower platen
of the testing machine. Insert the specimen in the fixture with
the heads of the nails up, as shown. Engage the heads of the
nails by the load-applying fixture equipped with a slot for easy
attachment. This loading fixture shall be attached to the upper
platen of the testing machine. Loads shall be applied by
separation of the platens of the testing machine. The fitting is
detailed in Fig. 11. For other types of fasteners, such as staples,
modification of the loading fixture may be necessary.
52. Speed of Testing
52.1 Apply the load to the specimen throughout the test by
a uniform motion of the movable head of the testing machine
at a rate of 0.06 in./min (1.5 mm/min) (see Note 8).
53. Test Data and Report
53.1 The maximum load required to withdraw the nail shall
be the measure of resistance of the material to direct nail
withdrawal, and shall be included in the report.
NAIL-HEAD PULL-THROUGH TEST
54.1 Nail-head pull-through tests shall be made to measure
the resistance of a panel to having the head of a nail or other
fastener pulled through the board. This test is to simulate the
condition encountered with forces that tend to pull paneling or
sheathing from a wall.
55. Test Specimen
55.1 The test specimen shall be of convenient size (at least
3 in. (76 mm) in width by 6 in. (152 mm) in length). Common
wire nails 0.113 in. (2.80 mm) in diameter shall be driven
through the board at right angles to the face with the nail head
flush with the surface of the board (Note 23 and Note 24). The
thickness of each specimen shall be measured to an accuracy of
not less than 60.3 %.
NOTE 23—A sixpenny common wire nail meets this requirement.
NOTE 24—For interior applications, the resistance to pull-through of a
finishing nail may be preferred. For other applications, some special
FIG. 8 Test Assembly for Measuring the Resistance of Nails to