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استاندارد ASTM D 1037 – 99 (بخش اول)
Standard Test Methods for Evaluating Properties of Wood-Base Fiber and Particle Panel Materials

This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 1037; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of

original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A

superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.

  

INTRODUCTION

The test methods presented herein have been developed and are presented to serve two distinct

purposes. They are divided into two parts, Parts A and B, depending on the purpose for which they

are intended. The choice between a particular test method and its alternative should be made with a

full understanding of the intended purpose of each, because values obtained from tests may, in some

cases, differ. Of the test methods presented in both parts, some have been in generally accepted use

for many years, some are modifications and refinements of previously developed test methods, and

some are more recent developments. Where test methods are suitable for more than one of the

purposes, they are delineated in Part A, but not repeated in Part B. It is the intent that reference to the

appropriate section of the test method shall suffice in specifications developed for the different

materials.

Part A. General Test Methods for Evaluating the Basic Properties of Wood-Base Fiber and Particle

Panel Materials—Part A is for use in obtaining basic properties suitable for comparison studies with

other materials of construction. These refined test methods are applicable for this purpose to all

materials covered by Definitions D 1554.

Part B. Acceptance and Specification Test Methods for Hardboard—Part B is for specific use in

specifications for procurement and acceptance testing of hardboard. These test methods are generally

employed for those purposes in the industry. By confining their intended use as indicated, it has been

possible to achieve adequate precision of results combined with economy and speed in testing, which

are desirable for specification use.

PART A—GENERAL TEST METHODS FOR EVALUATING THE BASIC PROPERTIES OF WOOD-BASE

FIBER AND PARTICLE PANEL MATERIALS

1. Scope

1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the

properties of wood-base fiber and particle panel materials as

follows:

Sections

Size and Appearance of Boards 7-10

Strength Properties: Static Bending 11-20

Tensile Strength Parallel to Surface 21-27

Tensile Strength Perpendicular to Surface 28-33

Compression Strength Parallel to Surface 34-40

Fastener Holding Tests:

Lateral Nail Resistance Test 41-46

Nail Withdrawal Test 47-53

Nail-Head Pull-Through Test 54-60

Direct Screw Withdrawal Test 61-67

Hardness Test 68-73

Hardness Modulus Test 74-80

Shear Strength in the Plane of the Board 81-86

Glue-Line Shear Test (Block Type) 87-90

Falling Ball Impact Test 91-95

Abrasion Resistance by the U.S. Navy Wear Tester 96-99

Moisture Tests:

Water Absorption and Thickness Swelling

100-107

Linear Variation with Change in

Moisture Content 108-111

Accelerated Aging 112-118

Cupping and Twisting 119

Moisture Content and Specific Gravity 120–121

Interlaminar Shear 122-129

Edgewise Shear 130-136

1 These test methods are under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D-7 on

Wood and are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D07.03 on Panel Products.

Current edition approved April 10, 1999. Published July 1999. Originally

published as D 1037 – 49. Last previous edition D 1037 – 96a.

1

Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

Compression-Shear Test 137-146

1.2 There are accepted basic test procedures for various

fundamental properties of materials that may be used without

modification for evaluating certain properties of wood-based

fiber and particle panel materials. These test methods are

included elsewhere in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards.

The pertinent ones are listed in Table 1. A few of the test

methods referenced are for construction where the wood-base

materials often are used.

1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded

as the standard. The metric equivalents of inch-pound units

may be approximate.

1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the

safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the

responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate

safety and health practices and determine the applicability

of regulatory limitations prior to use.

2. Referenced Documents

2.1 ASTM Standards:

C 273 Test Method for Shear Test in Flatwise Plane of Flat

Sandwich Constructions or Sandwich Cores2

D 143 Methods of Testing Small Clear Specimens of Timber3

D 905 Test Method for Strength Properties of Adhesive

Bonds in Shear by Compression Loading4

D 1554 Definitions of Terms Relating to Wood-Base Fiber

and Particle Panel Materials3

D 3501 Methods of Testing Plywood in Compression3

3. Significance and Use

3.1 These test methods cover small-specimen tests for

wood-base fiber and particle panel materials that are made to

provide:

3.1.1 Data for comparing the mechanical and physical

properties of various materials,

3.1.2 Data for determining the influence on the basic properties

of such factors as raw material and processing variables,

post-treatments of panels, and environmental influences, and

3.1.3 Data for manufacturing control, product research and

development, and specification acceptance.

4. Selection of Test Method

4.1 Not all the tests outlined in these test methods may be

necessary to evaluate any particular board for any specified

use. In each instance, therefore, it will be necessary to

determine which tests shall be made.

5. Test Specimens

5.1 The number of specimens to be chosen for test and the

method of their selection depend on the purpose of the

particular tests under consideration, so that no general rule can

be given to cover all instances. It is recommended that

whenever possible, a sufficient number of tests be made to

permit statistical treatment of the test data. In the evaluation of

a board material, specimens for test should be obtained from a

representative number of boards. In properties reflecting differences

due to the machine direction of the board, specimens

from each board shall be selected both with the long dimension

parallel to the long dimension of the sheet, and with the long

dimension perpendicular to the long dimension of the sheet.

6. Control of Moisture Content and Temperature

6.1 The physical and mechanical properties of building

boards depend on the moisture content at time of test. Therefore,

material for test in the dry condition shall be conditioned

to constant weight and moisture content in a conditioning

chamber maintained at a relative humidity of 65 6 1 % and a

temperature of 20 6 3°C (68 6 6°F) (Note 1 and Note 2). If

there is any departure from this recommended condition, it

shall be so stated in this report.

NOTE 1—In following the recommendation that the temperature be

controlled to 20 6 3°C (68 6 6°F), it should be understood that it is

desirable to maintain the temperature as nearly constant as possible at

some temperature within this range.

2 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 15.03.

3 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 04.10.

4 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 15.06.

TABLE 1 Basic Test Procedures for Evaluating Properties of

Wood Base-Fiber and Particle Panel Materials

ASTM

Designation

Test Methods for

C 177 Steady-State Heat-Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission

Properties by Means of the Guarded-Hot-Plate ApparatusA

C 209 Cellulosic Fiber Insulating BoardA

C 236 Steady-State Thermal Performance of Building Assemblies by

Means of the Guarded Hot BoxA

C 384 Impedance and Absorption of Acoustical Materials by the Impedance

Tube MethodA

C 423 Sound Absorption and Sound Absorption Coefficients by the Reverberation

Room MethodA

D 149 Dielectric Breakdown Voltage and Dielectric Strength of Solid Electrical

Insulating Materials at Commercial Power FrequenciesB

D 150 A-C Loss Characteristics and Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of

Solid Electrical Insulating MaterialsB

D 257 D-C Resistance or Conductance of Insulating MaterialsB

D 495 High-Voltage, Low-Current, Dry Arc Resistance of Solid Electrical

InsulationB

D 1666 Conducting Machining Tests of Wood and Wood-Base MaterialsC

D 1761 Mechanical Fasteners in WoodC

E 72 Conducting Strength Tests of Panels for Building ConstructionD

E 84 Surface Burning Characteristics of Building MaterialsD

E 90 Laboratory Measurement of Airborne Sound Transmission Loss of

Building PartitionsA

E 96 Water Vapor Transmission of MaterialsA

E 97 Directional Reflectance Factor, 45-deg 0-deg, of Opaque

Specimens by Broad-Band Filter ReflectometryE

E 119 Fire Tests of Building Construction and MaterialsD

E 136 Behavior of Materials in a Vertical Tube Furnace at 750°CD

E 152 Fire Tests of Door AssembliesD

E 162 Surface Flammability of Materials Using a Radiant Heat Energy

SourceD

E 661 Performance of Wood and Wood-Based Floor and Roof Sheathing

Under Concentrated Static and Impact LoadsD

E 662 Specific Optical Density of Smoke Generated by Solid MaterialsD

E 906 Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and ProductsD

AAnnual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 04.06.

BAnnual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 10.01.

CAnnual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 04.10.

DAnnual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 04.07.

EAnnual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 14.02.

D 1037

2

NOTE 2—Requirements for relative humidity vary for different materials.

The condition given above meets the standard for wood and

wood-base materials.

SIZE AND APPEARANCE OF BOARDS

7. Size of Finished Boards

7.1 When measurements of finished boards are required, the

width of each finished board shall be obtained by measuring

the width at each end and at midlength to an accuracy of not

less than 60.3 % or 1⁄16 in. (2 mm), whichever is smaller.

Likewise, three measurements of length shall be made, one

near each edge, and one at midwidth with like accuracy.

8. Variation in Thickness

8.1 For the determination of variations in thickness, specimens

at least 6-in. (150-mm) square shall be used. The

thickness of each specimen shall be measured at five points,

near each corner and near the center, and the average thickness

and the variation in thickness noted. These measurements shall

be made to an accuracy of not less than 60.3 %, when

possible.

9. Specific Gravity

9.1 Specific gravity (or density) and moisture content determinations

are required on each static bending test specimen.

The moisture content shall be determined from a coupon taken

from each bending specimen, and the specific gravity computed

from the dimensions and weight of the bending specimen

at time of test and the moisture content. The average specific

gravity of the bending specimens as determined after conditioning

to equilibrium (Section 6) shall be reported as the

specific gravity of the board. The maximum and minimum

values for specific gravity (based on volume at test and weight

when oven–dry) shall also be noted.

NOTE 3—When it is desired to make specific gravity determinations

independent of any other test, specimens of any convenient size may be

selected. These shall be measured, weighed, and dried as outlined in

Sections 127 and 128.

10. Surface Finish

10.1 The finish of both surfaces shall be described. A

photograph of each surface may be taken to show the texture of

the board. This photograph shall show suitable numbering so

that the building board may be properly identified.

STATIC BENDING

11. Scope

11.1 Static bending tests shall be made both on specimens

when conditioned and when soaked. One half of the test

specimens shall be prepared with the long dimension parallel

and the other half with the long dimension perpendicular to the

long dimension of the board in order to evaluate directional

properties.

12. Test Specimen

12.1 Each test specimen shall be 3 in. (76 mm) in width if

the nominal thickness is greater than 1⁄4 in. (6 mm), and 2 in.

(50 mm) in width if the nominal thickness is 1⁄4 in. or less. The

depth (thickness) shall be the thickness of the material. The

length of each specimen shall be 2 in. (50 mm) plus 24 times

the nominal depth (Note 4 and Note 5). The width, length, and

thickness of each specimen shall be measured to an accuracy of

not less than 60.3 %.

NOTE 4—In cutting specimens to meet the length requirements of 2 in.

(50 mm) plus 24 times the nominal thickness, it is not intended that the

length be changed for small variations in thickness. Rather it is the thought

that the nominal thickness of the board under test should be used for

determining the specimen length.

NOTE 5—Long-span specimens are desired for tests in bending so that

the effects of deflections due to shear deformations will be minimized and

the values of moduli of elasticity obtained from the bending tests will

approximate the true moduli of the materials.

13. Specimens Soaked Before Test

13.1 The specimens to be tested in the soaked condition

shall be submerged in water at 20 6 3°C (68 6 6°F) for 24 h

before the test and shall be tested immediately upon removal

from the water. When it is desired to obtain the effect of

complete saturation the specimens shall be soaked for such

longer period as may be necessary. The time of soaking and the

amount of water absorbed shall be reported.

14. Span and Supports

14.1 The span for each test shall be 24 times the nominal

thickness (depth) of the specimen (Note 6). The supports shall

be such that no appreciable crushing of the specimen will occur

at these points during the test. The supports either shall be

rounded or shall be knife edges provided with rollers and plates

under the specimen at these points. When rounded supports,

such as those shown in Fig. 1, are used, the radius of the

rounded portion shall be at least 11⁄2 times the thickness of the

material being tested. If the material under test deviates from a

plane (Note 7), laterally adjustable supports5 shall be provided.

NOTE 6—Establishment of a span-depth ratio is required to allow an

accurate comparison of test values for materials of different thicknesses. It

should be noted that the span is based on the nominal thickness of the

material and it is not intended that the spans be changed for small

variations in thickness.

NOTE 7—The laterally adjustable knife edges may be necessary for the

specimens tested in the soaked condition because of warping or twisting

that may occur due to soaking.

15. Center Loading

15.1 The specimens shall be loaded at the center of span

with the load applied to the finished face at a uniform rate

through a loading block rounded as is shown in Fig. 1. The

bearing blocks shall be at least 3 in. (76 mm) in width and shall

have a thickness (parallel to span) equal to twice the radius of

curvature of the rounded portion of the loading block. The

radius of the rounded portion shall be approximately equal to

11⁄2 times the thickness of the specimen.

16. Speed of Testing

16.1 Apply the load continuously throughout the test at a

uniform rate of motion of the movable crosshead of the testing

machine calculated as follows (Note 8 and Note 9):

5 Details of laterally adjustable supports may be found in Fig. 1 of Methods

D 3501.

D 1037

3

N 5 zL2 /6d (1)

where:

N = rate of motion of moving head, in./min (mm/min),

z = unit rate of fiber strain, in./in. (mm/mm) of outer fiber

length per minute (0.005),

L = span, in. (mm), and

d = depth (thickness) of specimen, in. (mm).

NOTE 8—The testing machine speed used shall not vary by more than

650 % from that specified for a given test. The testing machine speed

used shall be recorded on the data sheet. The crossheaded speed shall

mean the free-running, or no-load, crosshead speed for testing machines of

the mechanical-drive type, and the loaded crosshead speed for testing

machines of the hydraulic-loading type.

NOTE 9—The calculated rates of head descent are, therefore, 0.12

in./min (3 mm/min) for specimens 1⁄4in. (6 mm) in thickness, 0.24 in./min

(6 mm/min) for specimens 1⁄2 in. (12 mm) in thickness, 0.36 in./min (9

mm/min) for specimens 3⁄4 in. (18 mm) in thickness and 0.48 in./min (12

mm/min) for specimens 1 in. (25 mm) in thickness.

17. Load-Deflection Curves

17.1 Obtain load-deflection curves to maximum load for all

bending tests. Obtain the deflection of the center of the

specimen by measuring the deflection of the bottom of the

specimen at the center by means of an indicating dial (Note 10)

attached to the base of the testing jig, with the dial plunger in

contact with the bottom of the specimen at the center. This

arrangement is shown in Fig. 1. Note the load and deflection at

first failure and at maximum load. Take readings of deflection

at least to the nearest 0.005 in. (0.10 mm). Fig. 2 shows a

typical load-deflection curve. Deflections also may be measured

with transducer-type gages and plotted simultaneously

against load.

NOTE 10—The range of standard 0.001-in. (0.02-mm) indicating dials

is 1 in. (25 mm). The total deflection of some thicknesses of boards may

exceed 1 in. at failure. When this happens, either a 2-in. (50-mm)

total-travel indicating dial or a suitable 2:1 reducing lever in conjunction

with a 1-in. travel dial should be used so that maximum deflections can be

obtained.

18. Description of Failure

18.1 Note the character of the failure. The report shall

include the sequence of failure and note whether or not the

initial failure was in compression or tension. Photographs of

typical failures will be helpful.

FIG. 1 Static Bending Test Assembly

Metric Equivalents

in. 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

mm 5 10 15 20 25

lb 4 8 12 16 20 24 28

kg 1.8 3.6 5.4 7.2 9 10.8 12.6

FIG. 2 Typical Load-Deflection Curve for Static Bending Test

D 1037

4

19. Moisture Content and Specific Gravity

19.1 Weigh the specimen immediately before the test, and

after the test cut a moisture 1 in. (25 mm) by the width of

specimen from the body of the specimen. Determine the

moisture content and specific gravity of each specimen in

accordance with Sections 9, 127, and 128.

20. Calculation and Report

20.1 Calculate the modulus of rupture for each specimen by

the following equation, and include the values determined in

the report:

R 5 3PL/2bd2 (2)

20.2 Calculate the stress at proportional limit for each

specimen by the following equation, and include the values

determined in the report:

Spl 5 3P1L/2bd2 (3)

20.3 Calculate the stiffness (apparent modulus of elasticity)

for each specimen by the following equation, and include the

values determined in the report:

E 5 P1L3/4bd3y1 (4)

20.4 Calculate the work-to-maximum load for each specimen

by the following equation, and include the values determined

in the report:

Wml 5 A/bdL (5)

where:

A = area under load-deflection curve to maximum load,

lbf·in. (N·m),

b = width of specimen, in. (mm),

d = thickness (depth) of specimen, in. (mm),

E = stiffness (apparent modulus of elasticity), psi

(kPa),

L = length of span, in. (mm),

P = maximum load, lbf (N),

P1 = load at proportional limit, lbf (N),

R = modulus of rupture, psi (kPa),

Spl = stress at proportional limit, psi (kPa),

Wml = work to maximum load, lbf·in./in.3(N·mm/mm3),

and

y1 = center deflection at proportional limit load, in.

(mm).

TENSILE STRENGTH PARALLEL TO SURFACE

21. Scope

21.1 The test for tensile strength parallel to the surface shall

be made on specimens both in the dry and in the soaked

condition. Tests shall be made on specimens both with the long

dimension parallel and perpendicular to the long dimension of

the board to determine whether or not the material has

directional properties.

NOTE 11—This test may be applied to material 1 in. (25 mm) or less in

thickness. When the materials exceed 1 in. in thickness, crushing at the

grips during test is likely to adversely affect the test values obtained. It is

recommended that for material greater than 1 in. in thickness, the material

be resawed to 1⁄2 in. (12 mm) thickness. Test values obtained from resawed

specimens may be only approximate, because strengths of material near

the surface may vary from the remainder.

22. Test Specimen

22.1 Each test specimen shall be prepared as shown in Fig.

3. The reduced section shall be cut to the size shown with a

band saw. The thickness and the minimum width of each

specimen at the reduced section shall be measured to an

accuracy of not less than 60.3 %. The minimum width of the

reduced section shall be determined to at least the nearest 0.01

in. (0.25 mm). These two dimensions shall be used to determine

the net cross-sectional area for determining maximum

stress.

23. Specimens Soaked Before Test

23.1 Specimens to be tested in the soaked condition shall be

prepared in accordance with Section 13.

24. Method of Loading

24.1 Use self-aligning, self-tightening grips with serrated

gripping surfaces at least 2 in. (50 mm) in width and at least 2

in. in length to transmit the load from the testing machine to the

specimen. Fig. 4 shows a typical assembly for the tension test

of building boards.

25. Speed of Testing

25.1 Apply the load continuously throughout the test at a

uniform rate of motion of the movable crosshead of the testing

machine of 0.15 in./min (4 mm/min) (see Note 8).

Metric Equivalents

in. 1⁄4 1 11⁄4 11⁄2 2 23⁄4 3 10

mm 6 25.4 32 38 51 70 76 254

FIG. 3 Detail of Specimen for Tension Test Parallel to Surface

D 1037

5

26. Test Data and Report

26.1 Obtain maximum loads from which calculate the

stress. If the failure is within 1⁄2 in. (12 mm) of either grip,

disregard the test value. The report shall include maximum

loads and the location and description of the failures.

27. Moisture Content

27.1 Determine the moisture content of each specimen as

specified in Sections 9, 14 and 15.

TENSILE STRENGTH PERPENDICULAR TO

SURFACE

28. Scope

28.1 The test for tensile strength perpendicular to the

surface shall be made on specimens in the dry condition to

determine cohesion of the fiberboard in the direction perpendicular

to the plane of the board.

NOTE 12—This test is included because of the increased use of

fiberboards, hardboards, and particle boards where wood, plywood, or

other materials are glued to the board, or where the internal bond strength

of the board is an important property. Tests in the soaked condition shall

be made if the material is to be used under severe conditions.

29. Test Specimen

29.1 The test specimen shall be 2-in. (50-mm) square and

the thickness shall be that of the finished board. Loading blocks

of steel or aluminum alloy 2-in. square and 1 in. (25 mm) in

thickness shall be effectively bonded with a suitable adhesive

(Note 13) to the 2-in. square faces of the specimen as shown in

Fig. 5, which is a detail of the specimen and loading fixtures.

Cross-sectional dimensions of the specimen shall be measured

to an accuracy of not less than 60.3 %. The maximum distance

from the center of the universal joint or self-aligning head to

the glued surface of the specimen shall be 3 in. (76 mm).

NOTE 13—Any suitable adhesive that provides an adequate bond may

be used for bonding the specimen to the loading blocks. Epoxy resins are

recommended as a satisfactory bonding agent. The pressure required to

bond the blocks to the specimen will depend on the density of the board

and the adhesive used, and should not be so great as to measurably

damage the specimen. The resulting bond shall be at least as strong as the

cohesive strength of the material perpendicular to the plane of the panel.

FIG. 4 Assembly for Tension Test Parallel to Surface

Metric Equivalents

in. 1⁄4 5⁄16 3⁄8 7⁄16 1⁄2 3⁄4 11⁄4 19⁄16 2 21⁄16 29⁄16

mm 6 7.5 9 10.5 12.7 19 31.7 39 51 52 64.3

FIG. 5 Detail of Specimen and Loading Fixture for Tension Test Perpendicular to Surface

D 1037

6

30. Procedure

30.1 Engage the loading fixtures, such as are shown in Fig.

5, attached to the heads of the testing machine, with the blocks

attached to the specimen. Stress the specimen by separation of

the heads of the testing machine until failure occurs. The

direction of loading shall be as nearly perpendicular to the

faces of the specimen as possible, and the center of load shall

pass through the center of the specimen.

31. Speed of Testing

31.1 Apply the load continuously throughout the test at a

uniform rate of motion of the movable crosshead of the testing

machine 0.08 in./in. (cm/cm) of thickness per min.

NOTE 14—It is not intended that the testing machine speed shall be

varied for small differences in fiberboard thickness, but rather that it shall

not vary more than 650 % from that specified above (see Note 8).

32. Test Data and Report

32.1 Obtain maximum loads from which calculate the stress

at failure. Calculate strength values in pounds per square inch

(kilopascals), for which the measured dimensions of the

specimen shall be used. Include the location of the line of

failure in the report.

33. Moisture Content

33.1 Determine the moisture content of each specimen on a

separate sample prepared from the same material, as specified

in Sections 127 and 128.

COMPRESSION STRENGTH PARALLEL TO

SURFACE

34. Scope

34.1 The test for compression strength parallel to the

surface shall be made on specimens both in the dry and in the

soaked condition. Tests shall be made of specimens both with

the load applied parallel and perpendicular to the long dimension

of the board to determine whether or not the material has

directional properties.

34.2 Because of the large variation in character of woodbase

fiber and particle panel materials and the differences in

manufactured thicknesses, one procedure is not applicable for

all materials. One of the three procedures detailed as follows

shall be used depending on the character and thickness of the

board being evaluated:

34.2.1 Procedure A (Laminated Specimen), shall be used for

materials 3⁄8 in. (10 mm) or more but less than 1 in. (25 mm)

in nominal thickness, particularly when modulus of elasticity

and stress at proportional limit are required. In this procedure

when materials less than 1 in. in thickness are evaluated, two

or three thicknesses shall be laminated to provide a nominal

thickness of at least 1 in. but no amount more than that amount

than necessary. The nominal size of the specimen shall be 1 by

4 in. (25 by 101 mm) (with the 4-in. dimension parallel to the

applied force) by the thickness as laminated.

34.2.2 Procedure B (Lateral Support), shall be used for

materials less than 3⁄8 in. in thickness, particularly when

modulus of elasticity and stress at proportional limit are

required. Specimens shall be 1 by 4 in. by the thickness as

manufactured and evaluations made in a suitable lateral support

device. The 4-in. long dimensions shall be parallel to the

applied force.

34.2.3 Procedure C (Short Column), shall be used when

maximum crushing strength only is required or where the

thickness of the board material is 1 in. or more and either

maximum crushing strength modulus of elasticity, and stress at

proportional limit or only maximum crushing strength is

required. When the material being evaluated is 1 in. or less in

thickness, the width of the specimen shall be 1 in., the

thickness shall be as manufactured, and the length (height as

tested) shall be four times the thickness. When the material

being evaluated is more than 1 in. in thickness, the width shall

be equal to the nominal thickness and the length (height as

loaded) shall be four times the nominal thickness.

35. Test Specimen

35.1 The test specimens shall be carefully sawed with

surfaces smooth and planes at right angles to the faces of the

boards as manufactured. For the laminated specimens (Procedure

A), pieces of board at least 1 in. (25 mm) larger in length

and width than the finished size of specimen shall be laminated

using thin spreads of epoxy resin or other adhesive that does

not contain water or other swelling agent (Note 15). Pressures

shall not exceed 50 psi (343.2 kPa). Specimens shall be sawed

from the laminated pieces after at least 8 h of curing of the

resin at room temperature. The width and thickness shall be

measured to at least the nearest 0.001 in. (0.025 mm). These

two dimensions shall be used to calculate net cross-sectional

area for modulus of elasticity, and stress at proportional limit

and maximum load.

NOTE 15—An adhesive that contains water or other swelling agent

might produce initial stresses adjacent to the glue lines.

36. Specimens Soaked Before Test

36.1 Specimens to be tested in the soaked condition shall be

prepared in accordance with Section 13.

37. Procedure

37.1 Load the specimens through a spherical loading block,

preferably of the suspended self-aligning type. Center them

carefully in the testing machine in a vertical plane as shown in

Fig. 6 (unsupported 4-in. (101-mm specimen)) and Fig. 7

(laterally supported pack device).6 Apply loading at a uniform

rate of head travel of the testing machine of 0.005 in. (0.12

mm)/in. of length/min.

NOTE 16—Speed of test therefore for the 4-in. specimen of Test

MethodsAand B shall be 0.020 in./min (see Note 8 for permitted variation

in testing speed).

38. Load-Deformation Curves

38.1 When required, obtain load-deformation curves for the

full duration of each test. Fig. 6 shows a Lamb’s Roller

Compressometer on an unsupported specimen. Fig. 7 shows a

6 The lateral support device is detailed in Fig. 2 of Methods D 3501.

D 1037

7

Marten’s Mirror Compressometer on a laterally supported

specimen. Use these or equally accurate instruments for

measuring deformation. Choose increments in loading so that

not less than 12 and preferably at least 15 readings are obtained

before proportional limit. Read deformation to the nearest

0.0001 in. (0.002 mm). Attach compressometers over the

central portion of the length; points of attachment (gage points)

shall be at least 1 in. (25 mm) from the ends of specimens.

39. Moisture Content and Specific Gravity

39.1 Use the entire compression parallel to surface specimen

for moisture content determination except when the

capacity of the drying oven is too small for convenient drying

of the number of specimens being evaluated, when it will be

permissible to dry short lengths. Weigh the specimen immediately

before test and determine the moisture content and

specific gravity for each specimen in accordance with Section

9.

40. Calculation and Report

40.1 The report shall indicate which procedure (laminated,

laterally supported, or short column) was used. Calculate the

values of modulus of elasticity, stress at proportional limit, and

maximum crushing strength by using the measured crosssectional

dimensions of each specimen. Describe the type of

failure.

LATERAL NAIL RESISTANCE TEST

41. Scope

41.1 Nail-holding tests shall be made to measure the resistance

of a nail to lateral movement through a board. One half

of the specimens shall be selected and positioned in test so that

the movement of the nail will be perpendicular to the long

dimension of the board for evaluation of directional properties.

When general information is desired the sixpenny common nail

or its equivalent should be used. For special applications,

however, this procedure is adaptable to other sizes and types of

fasteners.

NOTE 17—If this test is performed on some boards, the nail may bend

and pull out of the stirrup. If this happens, the maximum load will be an

apparent and not the true resistance of the board, and will only indicate

that the resistance is some figure higher than the apparent value. When this

happens it shall be noted.

NOTE 18—Values obtained from this test are dependent on the thickness

of the specimen. Values, however, are not directly proportional to the

thickness. For this reason values obtained from tests of different boards

can only be compared exactly if the thicknesses are equal.

42. Test Specimen

42.1 Each specimen shall be 3 in. (76 mm) in width and of

convenient length, and shall have a nail 0.113 in. (2.80 mm) in

diameter (or as near thereto as possible) (Note 19) driven at

right angles to the face of the board so that about an equal

length of nail projects from each face. The nail shall be

centered on the width and located 1⁄4, 3⁄8, 1⁄y___2, or 3⁄4 in. (6, 9, 12,

or 18 mm) (Note 20) from one end. Tests shall be made for all

three edge distances for each material tested. The thickness of

each specimen shall be measured to an accuracy of not less

than 60.3 %.

NOTE 19—A sixpenny common wire nail meets this requirement. In

certain instances it may be more desirable to use a pointed steel pin of

known hardness than the nail. The type of nail or pin used shall be

described in the report.

NOTE 20—The edge distance is the distance from the center of the nail

or other fastener to the edge of the board.

43. Specimens Soaked Before Test

43.1 Specimens to be tested in the soaked condition shall be

prepared in accordance with Section 13, and the nails shall be

driven before the specimens are soaked.

44. Method of Loading

44.1 Clamp the end of the specimen opposite to the end with

the nail in a position parallel to the movement of the testing

machine. Grip such as are suitable for tension tests parallel to

the plane of the board are suitable. Engage the nail by the

stirrup, and connect in turn to one platen of the testing machine

by a rod. A typical test assembly for measuring the resistance

of a nail in the lateral direction is shown in Fig. 8. The stirrup

and connections are detailed in Fig. 9. For other types of

fasteners, such as staples, modification of the stirrup may be

necessary.

FIG. 6 Assembly for Compression Parallel to Surface Test of

Unsupported Specimen

FIG. 7 Assembly for Compression Parallel to Surface Test of a

Laterally Supported Specimen

D 1037

8

45. Speed of Testing

45.1 Load the specimen continuously throughout the test by

separation of the heads of the testing machine at a uniform rate

of crosshead speed of 0.25 in./min (6 mm/min) (see Note 8).

46. Test Data and Report

46.1 The load required to move the nail to the edge of the

specimen shall be the measure of the lateral resistance. The

maximum load and the nature of failure shall be included in the

report.

NAIL WITHDRAWAL TEST

47. Scope

47.1 Nail-holding tests shall be made on nails driven

through the specimen from face to face to measure the

resistance to withdrawal in a plane normal to the face. When

general information is desired the sixpenny common nail or its

equivalent should be used. For special applications, however,

this procedure is adaptable to other sizes and types of fasteners.

48. Test Specimen

48.1 The test specimen shall be of convenient size (at least

3 in. (76 mm) in width and 6 in. (152 mm) in length). Nails

0.113 in. (2.80 mm) in diameter shall be driven through the

board at right angles to the face, and at least 1⁄2 in. (12 mm) of

the shank portion shall project above the surface of the

material. The thickness of each specimen shall be measured to

an accuracy of not less than 60.3 %.

NOTE 21—A sixpenny common wire nail meets this requirement. In

certain instances it may be more desirable to use a pointed steel pin of

known hardness than the nail. A head or other suitable end shall then be

provided to engage the load-applying fixture and the nail or pin used shall

be described in the report.

NOTE 22—Where the use of a particular nail or fastener requires less

than 1⁄2 in. of shank projecting above the surface, then only sufficient

length shall be left to permit engagement in the testing assembly.

49. Specimens Tested in the Dry Condition

49.1 When the tests are made in the dry state, the withdrawals

shall be made immediately after the nails have been driven.

50. Specimens Soaked Before Test

50.1 Specimens to be tested in the soaked conditions shall

be prepared in accordance with Section 13, and the nails shall

be driven before the specimens are soaked.

51. Method of Loading

51.1 The assembly for the direct-withdrawal test is shown in

Fig. 10. Attach the specimen-holding fixture to the lower platen

of the testing machine. Insert the specimen in the fixture with

the heads of the nails up, as shown. Engage the heads of the

nails by the load-applying fixture equipped with a slot for easy

attachment. This loading fixture shall be attached to the upper

platen of the testing machine. Loads shall be applied by

separation of the platens of the testing machine. The fitting is

detailed in Fig. 11. For other types of fasteners, such as staples,

modification of the loading fixture may be necessary.

52. Speed of Testing

52.1 Apply the load to the specimen throughout the test by

a uniform motion of the movable head of the testing machine

at a rate of 0.06 in./min (1.5 mm/min) (see Note 8).

53. Test Data and Report

53.1 The maximum load required to withdraw the nail shall

be the measure of resistance of the material to direct nail

withdrawal, and shall be included in the report.

NAIL-HEAD PULL-THROUGH TEST

54. Scope

54.1 Nail-head pull-through tests shall be made to measure

the resistance of a panel to having the head of a nail or other

fastener pulled through the board. This test is to simulate the

condition encountered with forces that tend to pull paneling or

sheathing from a wall.

55. Test Specimen

55.1 The test specimen shall be of convenient size (at least

3 in. (76 mm) in width by 6 in. (152 mm) in length). Common

wire nails 0.113 in. (2.80 mm) in diameter shall be driven

through the board at right angles to the face with the nail head

flush with the surface of the board (Note 23 and Note 24). The

thickness of each specimen shall be measured to an accuracy of

not less than 60.3 %.

NOTE 23—A sixpenny common wire nail meets this requirement.

NOTE 24—For interior applications, the resistance to pull-through of a

finishing nail may be preferred. For other applications, some special

FIG. 8 Test Assembly for Measuring the Resistance of Nails to

Lateral Movement

 

 
 
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